This set of effects creates new objects.

*
New in v0.46.
*

This effect generates barcodes. The types of codes that can be generated are:

- EAN13 (European Article Number, UPC+1 digit) 13 digits; one is a checksum. The checksum is calculated.
- EAN8 (European Article Number) 8 digits. A short version of EAN13.
- UPC-A (Universal Product Code) 12 digits; one is a checksum.
- UPC-E (Universal Product Code) 6 digits; one is a checksum. A compressed representation of UPC-A.
- UPC-5 (Universal Product Code) 5 digits. Used on books to suggest retail price.
- Code39 (Encodes 26 uppercase letters, 10 digits, and 7 special characters.) Used on packaging.
- Code39Ext (Encodes all 128 ASCII characters.)
- Code93 (Improved version of Code39, used by Canadian Postal Service.)
- Code128 (Encodes all 128 ASCII characters.) Variable length. Includes checksum.
- RM4SCC (Royal Mail 4-state Customer Code, United Kingdom.) Allows letters, numbers, and open/close brackets.

*Updated in v0.46 with plotting using polar coordinates.*

Plot a function versus *x* (horizontal axis). To use, first draw
a rectangle to define the width of the
*x*-axis and the height of the ±1 lines of the
*y*-axis. Then select the effect. In the
pop-up window, enter the *x* and *y* ranges. Checking
the *Multiply x-range by 2π* box
changes the *x*-axis to represent units of 2π, useful for plotting
periodic functions. You can either have the routine
calculate the first derivative of the function numerically
or supply the first derivative yourself.

The function is plotted in the *SVG* coordinate system, which has the
*y*-axis upside down. The effect inserts a minus sign automatically to
correct for this.

All Python math functions are allowed (as
long as they return a single value) including
Python random number functions. The
*Help Tab* has a list of some of the
available functions.

*
As of v0.46 plotting can be done using polar coordinates. For
users of earlier versions, the necessary files can be found on
the book's website.
*

When the *Plot using Polar Coordinates* option
is selected, the *x*-range is set to −1 at the left of the
rectangle and +1 at the right side. The *x* values entered
in the effect's dialog are used for the angle
*domain* (in radians). The *Isotropic
scaling* parameter is ignored. *Calculate
first derivative numerically* must also be selected.

Note that depending on the version, Python may return an integer if you divide two integers: thus, 4/5 = 0, while 4.0/5.0 = 0.8.

*
New in v0.46. For users of earlier versions, the necessary
files can be found on the book's
website.
*

Draw a realistic mechanical gear. Three
parameters must be given: the *Number of
teeth*, the *Circular pitch* (the
tangential distance between successive teeth), and the
*Pressure angle*. Common values for
*Pressure angle* are: 14.5, 20, and 25
degrees. The radius of the «Pitch Circle» is equal
to N×P/2π, where «N» is the number of teeth and «P» is
the Circular Pitch.

The gear is created around the *SVG* origin and then placed
inside a *Gruppo*. The *Gruppo* is then translated so that the
center of the gear is at the center of the visible canvas. This
make animating the gear easier as the rotation is then
independent of the displacement. An animated clock using
these gears can be found on the book's
website.

This effect fills the *quadro delimitatore* of an object with a grid. The grid
spacing and offset can be independently set in the horizontal and
vertical directions. The grid line width can also be set.

This effect turns a *LaTeX* string into a path. The string is
typed into a dialog box. The effect requires that *ghostscript*,
*LaTeX*, and Pstoedit to be installed and in the execution
path. Pstoedit must include the GNU libplot *SVG* driver or the
shareware *SVG* plug-in,
available for Windows at the Pstoedit website.
The resulting formula is rendered as a path.

An alternative script for Linux using Skencil for the
conversion to *SVG* (avoiding the need for Pstoedit with
*SVG* support) is available at
the book's website: http://tavmjong.free.fr/INKSCAPE/.

Draws *Lindenmayer
System* structures, developed by Aristid
Lindenmayer while studying yeast and fungi growth patterns. It is
beyond the scope of this manual to discuss these structures.
Just one comment: The *Step* parameter controls
the scale of the generated path.

The rules can be very complex. See the Lindenmayer screenshot for more information.

Draw a random tree made of straight-line segments. This is a classic from
*Turtle
Geometry*. This implementation is rather limited.

*
New in v0.46. For users of earlier versions, the necessary
files can be found on the book's
website.
*

Draw a Spirograph; i.e.,
an epitrochoid or hypotrochoid curve. Several parameters need to be given:
«R», the *Ring Radius*;
«r», the *Gear Radius*; and
«d», the *Pen Radius*. In addition, one must choose if
the *Gear* travels *Inside* or *Outside*
the *Ring*.
One can also set the *Rotation* angle (the
angle of the starting point relative to the center) and the
*Quality* (roughly, the number of nodes per
loop).

The ratio of «r» to «R» determines the structure of the
curve. Take, for example, an «r» of 36 and an «R» of 48. The ratio
reduced to its simplest form is 3/4. This indicates that the
*Gear* will make a total of four
«loops» as it circles the *Ring*
three times. Simple ratios make simple curves. If you use an
*Even-odd* *fill rule*, the
center of the figure will be unfilled if the denominator is even.

Unlike the case with a real *Spirograph* that
utilizes plastic gears, it is possible to specify values of «r»
and «R» that don't form a *rational
number* ratio. In this case, the curve never
closes on itself and is of infinite length. To avoid such
infinities, the effect limits the number of nodes to 1000. If the
numerator or denominator of the ratio in the simplest form is a
large integer, the *Spirograph* may run out of
nodes. In this case, decreasing the *Quality*
may help.

Also, unlike a «real» Spirograph, the Spirograph
effect allows «d» to be greater than «r». This results in small
loops along the *Ring*.

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