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10. 其他常用指令介紹

10.1 dpkg

眾多 dpkg 的前端軟體套件管理工具

10.2 apt-setup

附圖 apt-setup1

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附圖 apt-setup4

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附圖 apt-setup8

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附圖 apt-setup14

10.3 apt-cache



假設今天我想上 icq 可是卻不清楚 debian 底下有什麼 icq 軟體可用?這時候 apt-cache 就是我們的好幫手,首先只要下底下指令:

apt-cache search icq

然後就可以看到一堆與 icq 這個 keyword 相關的軟體套件:

      [email protected][~]$ apt-cache search icq
      centericq - A text-mode icq client based on ncurses
      everybuddy - An all in one messaging client
      everybuddy-cvs - All in one Instant Messaging client, cvs snapshots
      gabber - A GNOME Jabber client.
      gaim - GPL clone of AOL Instant Messenger - GTK version
      gaim-gnome - GPL clone of AOL Instant Messenger - GNOME version
      gnomeicu - Small, fast and functional clone of Mirabilis' ICQ
      jabber - Daemon for the Open Source Instant Messenger
      konverse - a Jabber client for KDE
      libicq-dev - library implementation of Mirabilis ICQ (Development files)
      libicq1 - library implementation of Mirabilis ICQ
      licq - ICQ clone (base files)
      licq-dev - LICQ Development and Header Files
      licq-plugin-autoreply - LICQ auto-replyer plugin (noninteractive)
      licq-plugin-console - Text front-end plugin for LICQ
      licq-plugin-forwarder - LICQ message forwarder plugin
      licq-plugin-kde - Graphical front-end plugin for LICQ using QT2+KDE
      licq-plugin-qt2 - Graphical front-end plugin for LICQ using QT2
      licq-plugin-rms - LICQ remote management server for telnet LICQ access
      lyskom-server - Server for the LysKOM conference system
      psi - jabber client using qt
      vicq - A simple, Perl-based ICQ client

這樣的搜尋出來的軟體套件並非絕對是 icq 軟體,但是或多或少都會沾上邊,別擔心我們還可以利用底下命令來深入了解某個軟體套件,以 『 gaim 』為例子:

apt-cache show gaim

我們可以看到 gaim 軟體的詳細說明:

[email protected][~]$ apt-cache show gaim| more
Package: gaim
Priority: optional
Section: net
Installed-Size: 932
Maintainer: Robert McQueen <[email protected]>
Architecture: i386
Version: 1:0.50-1
Replaces: gaim-gnome (<= 1:0.11.0pre14)
Depends: gaim-common (= 1:0.50-1), libc6 (>= 2.2.4-4), libgdk-pixbuf2 (>= 0.13.0
-1), libglib1.2 (>= 1.2.0), libgtk1.2 (>= 1.2.10-4), libperl5.6 (>= 5.6.1-6), xl
ibs (>> 4.1.0)
Suggests: ispell
Conflicts: gaim-gnome (<= 1:0.11.0pre14)
Filename: pool/main/g/gaim/gaim_0.50-1_i386.deb
Size: 367514
MD5sum: 5b0d7668433d8494cbeee27f3bf97942
Description: GPL clone of AOL Instant Messenger - GTK version
Gaim allows you to talk to anyone using AOL's Instant Messenger service
(you can sign up at It contains many of the
same features as AOL's IM client while at the same time incorporating
many new features.


10.4 deborphan ( 檢查系統中無相依關係的 library package )

儘管 Debian 的軟體管理機制良好,但是仍舊有盲點存在,由其在於移除軟體部份,現在我們以安裝 kaffe 這個 package 為例:

    [email protected][~]$ sudo apt-get install kaffe
    Reading Package Lists... Done
    Building Dependency Tree... Done
    The following extra packages will be installed:
    The following NEW packages will be installed:
        kaffe libgmp2
    0 packages upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0  not upgraded.
    Need to get 1421kB of archives. After unpacking 2151kB will be used.
    Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 

上列訊息大家應該都十分熟悉了,主要是說明 Debian 因為軟體相依性的關係找到要安裝 kaffe 必須要加裝 libgmp2 這套 library,依照一般狀況我們自然是選擇『 Y 』一起安裝囉。

但是如果我們今天想要反安裝 kaffe 時,系統卻不會連帶將當初加裝進來的 libgmp2 移除:

[email protected][~]$ sudo apt-get remove kaffe
Reading Package Lists... Done
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  0 packages upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 0  not upgraded.
  Need to get 0B of archives. After unpacking 1972kB will be freed.
  Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 

這裡我們當然選『 Y 』將 kaffe 移除,但是問題是剛剛加裝進來的 libgmp2 這套 library 卻仍存在系統裡面,但卻沒有其他軟體需要它,上述只是單一個例子,系統用久了軟體裝多了,這種無相依性的 library 安靜的躺在系統裡的情況也會越多,用慣 Debian 的朋友多少也會跟筆者一樣對系統有些許的潔癖,既然無用何必留著。

『 deborphan 』 便是肩負檢查系統有無這類 library 責任的程式,我可以執行一下看看目前系統閒置中的 library :

    [email protected][~]$ deborphan

加一點巧思配合 Shell Script ,我們可以簡單的寫個 Shell 程式自動移除這些 library , 如果想要定時清掃,不妨再配合 crontab 機制:

for i in `deborphan`
        apt-get --assume-yes remove $i


deborphan | xargs apt-get --assume-yes remove

10.5 wajig

Simplified Debian package management front end Wajig is a single commandline wrapper around apt, apt-cache, dpkg, /etc/init.d scripts and more, intended to be easy to use and providing extensive documentation for all of its functions. . With a suitable sudo(1) configuration, most if not all package installation (as well as creation) tasks can be done from a user shell.

10.6 ar x package.deb ( 解開 .deb 檔)

以 xterm_4.1.0-16_i386.deb 為例:

$ ar x xterm_4.1.0-16_i386.deb


control.tar.gz data.tar.gz debian-binary

10.7 update 系列

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