MySQL 5.1 Reference Manual

Copyright 1997-2007 MySQL AB

This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license. Use of this documentation is subject to the following terms: You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely for your own personal use. Conversion to other formats is allowed as long as the actual content is not altered or edited in any way. You shall not publish or distribute this documentation in any form or on any media, except if you distribute the documentation in a manner similar to how MySQL disseminates it (that is, electronically for download on a Web site with the software) or on a CD-ROM or similar medium, provided however that the documentation is disseminated together with the software on the same medium. Any other use, such as any dissemination of printed copies or use of this documentation, in whole or in part, in another publication, requires the prior written consent from an authorized representative of MySQL AB. MySQL AB reserves any and all rights to this documentation not expressly granted above.

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This is the MySQL Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 5.1 through 5.1.15-beta.

Due to a build slippage, binary distributions of MySQL 5.1.12 contained neither NDB Cluster nor Partitioning. We apologize for any inconvenience. Please upgrade to 5.1.14. if you build from source, you can execute configure with the --with-ndbcluster and --with-partition options.

Document generated on: 2007-02-16 (revision: 4965)

Table of Contents

1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual
1.2. Conventions Used in This Manual
1.3. Overview of MySQL AB
1.4. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.4.1. What is MySQL?
1.4.2. History of MySQL
1.4.3. The Main Features of MySQL
1.5. Overview of the MaxDB Database Management System
1.5.1. What is MaxDB?
1.5.2. History of MaxDB
1.5.3. Features of MaxDB
1.5.4. Licensing and Support
1.5.5. Feature Differences Between MaxDB and MySQL
1.5.6. Interoperability Features Between MaxDB and MySQL
1.5.7. MaxDB-Related Links
1.6. MySQL Development Roadmap
1.6.1. What's New in MySQL 5.1
1.6.2. What's Planned for MySQL 5.2
1.7. MySQL Information Sources
1.7.1. MySQL Mailing Lists
1.7.2. MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.7.3. MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.8. How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.9. MySQL Standards Compliance
1.9.1. What Standards MySQL Follows
1.9.2. Selecting SQL Modes
1.9.3. Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
1.9.4. MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.9.5. MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.9.6. How MySQL Deals with Constraints
2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1. General Installation Issues
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
2.2. Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution
2.3. Installing MySQL on Windows
2.3.1. Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.2. Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer
2.3.3. Using the MySQL Installation Wizard
2.3.4. Using the Configuration Wizard
2.3.5. Installing MySQL from a Noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6. Extracting the Install Archive
2.3.7. Creating an Option File
2.3.8. Selecting a MySQL Server type
2.3.9. Starting the Server for the First Time
2.3.10. Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line
2.3.11. Starting MySQL as a Windows Service
2.3.12. Testing The MySQL Installation
2.3.13. Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows
2.3.14. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.15. MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix
2.4. Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.6. Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7. Installing MySQL on NetWare
2.8. Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems
2.9. MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution
2.9.1. Source Installation Overview
2.9.2. Typical configure Options
2.9.3. Installing from the Development Source Tree
2.9.4. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.5. MIT-pthreads Notes
2.9.6. Installing MySQL from Source on Windows
2.9.7. Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
2.10. Post-Installation Setup and Testing
2.10.1. Windows Post-Installation Procedures
2.10.2. Unix Post-Installation Procedures
2.10.3. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.11. Upgrading MySQL
2.11.1. Upgrading from MySQL 5.0 to 5.1
2.11.2. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12. Downgrading MySQL
2.12.1. Downgrading to MySQL 5.0
2.13. Operating System-Specific Notes
2.13.1. Linux Notes
2.13.2. Mac OS X Notes
2.13.3. Solaris Notes
2.13.4. BSD Notes
2.13.5. Other Unix Notes
2.13.6. OS/2 Notes
2.14. Perl Installation Notes
2.14.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.14.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.14.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1. Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2. Creating a Table
3.3.3. Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4. Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1. The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2. The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3. Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4. The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field
3.6.5. Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6. Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7. Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8. Calculating Visits Per Day
3.7. Queries from the Twin Project
3.7.1. Find All Non-distributed Twins
3.7.2. Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
3.8. Using MySQL with Apache
4. Using MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.3. Specifying Program Options
4.3.1. Using Options on the Command Line
4.3.2. Using Option Files
4.3.3. Using Environment Variables to Specify Options
4.3.4. Using Options to Set Program Variables
5. Database Administration
5.1. Overview of Server-Side Programs
5.2. mysqld — The MySQL Server
5.2.1. Option and Variable Reference
5.2.2. Command Options
5.2.3. System Variables
5.2.4. Using System Variables
5.2.5. Status Variables
5.2.6. SQL Modes
5.2.7. The Shutdown Process
5.2.8. Server-Side Help
5.3. MySQL Server Startup Programs
5.3.1. mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.2. mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.3. mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
5.4. mysqlmanager — The MySQL Instance Manager
5.4.1. MySQL Instance Manager Command Options
5.4.2. MySQL Instance Manager Configuration Files
5.4.3. Starting the MySQL Server with MySQL Instance Manager
5.4.4. Instance Manager User and Password Management
5.4.5. MySQL Server Instance Status Monitoring
5.4.6. Connecting to MySQL Instance Manager
5.4.7. MySQL Instance Manager Commands
5.5. Installation-Related Programs
5.5.1. make_win_bin_dist — Package MySQL Distribution as ZIP Archive
5.5.2. mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables
5.5.3. mysql_install_db — MySQL Data Directory Initialization Script
5.5.4. mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade
5.5.5. mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
5.6. General Security Issues
5.6.1. General Security Guidelines
5.6.2. Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
5.6.3. Security-Related mysqld Options
5.6.4. Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
5.6.5. How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
5.7. The MySQL Access Privilege System
5.7.1. What the Privilege System Does
5.7.2. How the Privilege System Works
5.7.3. Privileges Provided by MySQL
5.7.4. Connecting to the MySQL Server
5.7.5. Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
5.7.6. Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
5.7.7. When Privilege Changes Take Effect
5.7.8. Causes of Access denied Errors
5.7.9. Password Hashing as of MySQL 4.1
5.8. MySQL User Account Management
5.8.1. MySQL Usernames and Passwords
5.8.2. Adding New User Accounts to MySQL
5.8.3. Removing User Accounts from MySQL
5.8.4. Limiting Account Resources
5.8.5. Assigning Account Passwords
5.8.6. Keeping Your Password Secure
5.8.7. Using Secure Connections
5.9. Backup and Recovery
5.9.1. Database Backups
5.9.2. Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
5.9.3. Point-in-Time Recovery
5.9.4. Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
5.10. MySQL Localization and International Usage
5.10.1. The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting
5.10.2. Setting the Error Message Language
5.10.3. Adding a New Character Set
5.10.4. The Character Definition Arrays
5.10.5. String Collating Support
5.10.6. Multi-Byte Character Support
5.10.7. Problems With Character Sets
5.10.8. MySQL Server Time Zone Support
5.10.9. MySQL Server Locale Support
5.11. MySQL Server Logs
5.11.1. Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
5.11.2. The Error Log
5.11.3. The General Query Log
5.11.4. The Binary Log
5.11.5. The Slow Query Log
5.11.6. Server Log Maintenance
5.12. Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
5.12.1. Running Multiple Servers on Windows
5.12.2. Running Multiple Servers on Unix
5.12.3. Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.13. The MySQL Query Cache
5.13.1. How the Query Cache Operates
5.13.2. Query Cache SELECT Options
5.13.3. Query Cache Configuration
5.13.4. Query Cache Status and Maintenance
6. Replication
6.1. Replication Configuration
6.1.1. How to Set Up Replication
6.1.2. Replication Formats
6.1.3. Replication Options and Variables
6.1.4. Common Replication Administration Tasks
6.2. Replication Solutions
6.2.1. Using Replication for Backups
6.2.2. Using Replication with different Master and Slave Storage Engines
6.2.3. Using Replication for Scale-out
6.2.4. Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
6.2.5. Improving Replication Performance
6.2.6. Switching Masters During Failover
6.2.7. Setting up Replication using SSL
6.3. Replication Notes and Tips
6.3.1. Replication Features and Issues
6.3.2. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
6.3.3. Upgrading a Replication Setup
6.3.4. Replication FAQ
6.3.5. Troubleshooting Replication
6.3.6. How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
6.4. Replication Implementation
6.4.1. Replication Implementation Details
6.4.2. Replication Master Thread States
6.4.3. Replication Slave I/O Thread States
6.4.4. Replication Slave SQL Thread States
6.4.5. Replication Relay and Status Files
6.4.6. How Servers Evaluate Replication Rules
7. Optimization
7.1. Optimization Overview
7.1.1. MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs
7.1.2. Designing Applications for Portability
7.1.3. What We Have Used MySQL For
7.1.4. The MySQL Benchmark Suite
7.1.5. Using Your Own Benchmarks
7.2. Optimizing SELECT and Other Statements
7.2.1. Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
7.2.2. Estimating Query Performance
7.2.3. Speed of SELECT Queries
7.2.4. WHERE Clause Optimization
7.2.5. Range Optimization
7.2.6. Index Merge Optimization
7.2.7. IS NULL Optimization
7.2.8. DISTINCT Optimization
7.2.9. LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN Optimization
7.2.10. Nested Join Optimization
7.2.11. Outer Join Simplification
7.2.12. ORDER BY Optimization
7.2.13. GROUP BY Optimization
7.2.14. LIMIT Optimization
7.2.15. How to Avoid Table Scans
7.2.16. Speed of INSERT Statements
7.2.17. Speed of UPDATE Statements
7.2.18. Speed of DELETE Statements
7.2.19. Other Optimization Tips
7.3. Locking Issues
7.3.1. Locking Methods
7.3.2. Table Locking Issues
7.3.3. Concurrent Inserts
7.4. Optimizing Database Structure
7.4.1. Design Choices
7.4.2. Make Your Data as Small as Possible
7.4.3. Column Indexes
7.4.4. Multiple-Column Indexes
7.4.5. How MySQL Uses Indexes
7.4.6. The MyISAM Key Cache
7.4.7. MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
7.4.8. How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables
7.4.9. Drawbacks to Creating Many Tables in the Same Database
7.5. Optimizing the MySQL Server
7.5.1. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning
7.5.2. Tuning Server Parameters
7.5.3. Controlling Query Optimizer Performance
7.5.4. How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL
7.5.5. How MySQL Uses Memory
7.5.6. How MySQL Uses DNS
7.6. Disk Issues
7.6.1. Using Symbolic Links
8. Client and Utility Programs
8.1. Overview of Client and Utility Programs
8.2. my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
8.3. myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
8.4. myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
8.4.1. myisamchk General Options
8.4.2. myisamchk Check Options
8.4.3. myisamchk Repair Options
8.4.4. Other myisamchk Options
8.4.5. myisamchk Memory Usage
8.5. myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
8.6. myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
8.7. mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
8.7.1. mysql Options
8.7.2. mysql Commands
8.7.3. mysql Server-Side Help
8.7.4. Executing SQL Statements from a Text File
8.7.5. mysql Tips
8.8. mysqlaccess — Client for Checking Access Privileges
8.9. mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
8.10. mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
8.11. mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance and Repair Program
8.12. mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
8.13. mysqlhotcopy — A Database Backup Program
8.14. mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
8.15. mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
8.16. mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
8.17. mysql_zap — Kill Processes That Match a Pattern
8.18. perror — Explain Error Codes
8.19. replace — A String-Replacement Utility
9. Language Structure
9.1. Literal Values
9.1.1. Strings
9.1.2. Numbers
9.1.3. Hexadecimal Values
9.1.4. Boolean Values
9.1.5. Bit-Field Values
9.1.6. NULL Values
9.2. Identifiers
9.2.1. Identifier Qualifiers
9.2.2. Identifier Case Sensitivity
9.2.3. Mapping of Identifiers to Filenames
9.2.4. Function Name Parsing and Resolution
9.3. Reserved Words
9.4. User-Defined Variables
9.5. Comment Syntax
10. Character Set Support
10.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
10.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
10.3. Specifying Character Sets and Collations
10.3.1. Server Character Set and Collation
10.3.2. Database Character Set and Collation
10.3.3. Table Character Set and Collation
10.3.4. Column Character Set and Collation
10.3.5. Character String Literal Character Set and Collation
10.3.6. National Character Set
10.3.7. Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment
10.3.8. Compatibility with Other DBMSs
10.4. Connection Character Sets and Collations
10.5. Collation Issues
10.5.1. Using COLLATE in SQL Statements
10.5.2. COLLATE Clause Precedence
10.5.3. BINARY Operator
10.5.4. Some Special Cases Where the Collation Determination Is Tricky
10.5.5. Collations Must Be for the Right Character Set
10.5.6. An Example of the Effect of Collation
10.6. Operations Affected by Character Set Support
10.6.1. Result Strings
10.6.2. CONVERT() and CAST()
10.6.3. SHOW Statements and INFORMATION_SCHEMA
10.7. Unicode Support
10.8. UTF-8 for Metadata
10.9. Column Character Set Conversion
10.10. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports
10.10.1. Unicode Character Sets
10.10.2. West European Character Sets
10.10.3. Central European Character Sets
10.10.4. South European and Middle East Character Sets
10.10.5. Baltic Character Sets
10.10.6. Cyrillic Character Sets
10.10.7. Asian Character Sets
11. Data Types
11.1. Data Type Overview
11.1.1. Overview of Numeric Types
11.1.2. Overview of Date and Time Types
11.1.3. Overview of String Types
11.1.4. Data Type Default Values
11.2. Numeric Types
11.3. Date and Time Types
11.3.1. The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
11.3.2. The TIME Type
11.3.3. The YEAR Type
11.3.4. Year 2000 Issues and Date Types
11.4. String Types
11.4.1. The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
11.4.2. The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
11.4.3. The BLOB and TEXT Types
11.4.4. The ENUM Type
11.4.5. The SET Type
11.5. Data Type Storage Requirements
11.6. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
11.7. Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
12. Functions and Operators
12.1. Operators
12.1.1. Operator Precedence
12.1.2. Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
12.1.3. Comparison Functions and Operators
12.1.4. Logical Operators
12.2. Control Flow Functions
12.3. String Functions
12.3.1. String Comparison Functions
12.4. Numeric Functions
12.4.1. Arithmetic Operators
12.4.2. Mathematical Functions
12.5. Date and Time Functions
12.6. What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
12.7. Full-Text Search Functions
12.7.1. Boolean Full-Text Searches
12.7.2. Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
12.7.3. Full-Text Stopwords
12.7.4. Full-Text Restrictions
12.7.5. Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
12.8. Cast Functions and Operators
12.9. XML Functions
12.10. Other Functions
12.10.1. Bit Functions
12.10.2. Encryption and Compression Functions
12.10.3. Information Functions
12.10.4. Miscellaneous Functions
12.11. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
12.11.1. GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions
12.11.2. GROUP BY Modifiers
12.11.3. GROUP BY and HAVING with Hidden Fields
13. SQL Statement Syntax
13.1. Data Definition Statements
13.1.1. ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.2. ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.5. ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.6. CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.7. CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.8. CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.11. CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.12. DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.13. DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.14. DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.15. DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.16. DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.17. DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.18. RENAME DATABASE Syntax
13.1.19. RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.2. Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1. DELETE Syntax
13.2.2. DO Syntax
13.2.3. HANDLER Syntax
13.2.4. INSERT Syntax
13.2.5. LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.6. REPLACE Syntax
13.2.7. SELECT Syntax
13.2.8. Subquery Syntax
13.2.9. TRUNCATE Syntax
13.2.10. UPDATE Syntax
13.3. MySQL Utility Statements
13.3.1. DESCRIBE Syntax
13.3.2. HELP Syntax
13.3.3. USE Syntax
13.4. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements
13.4.2. Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.4.3. Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.4.6. SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.4.7. XA Transactions
13.5. Database Administration Statements
13.5.1. Account Management Statements
13.5.2. Table Maintenance Statements
13.5.3. SET Syntax
13.5.4. SHOW Syntax
13.5.5. Other Administrative Statements
13.6. Replication Statements
13.6.1. SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.6.2. SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.7. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
14. Storage Engines and Table Types
14.1. Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
14.1.1. The Common Database Server Layer
14.1.2. Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
14.2. Supported Storage Engines
14.2.1. Choosing a Storage Engine
14.2.2. Comparing Transaction and Non-Transaction Engines
14.2.3. Other Storage Engines
14.3. Setting the Storage Engine
14.4. The MyISAM Storage Engine
14.4.1. MyISAM Startup Options
14.4.2. Space Needed for Keys
14.4.3. MyISAM Table Storage Formats
14.4.4. MyISAM Table Problems
14.5. The InnoDB Storage Engine
14.5.1. InnoDB Overview
14.5.2. InnoDB Contact Information
14.5.3. InnoDB Configuration
14.5.4. InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
14.5.5. Creating the InnoDB Tablespace
14.5.6. Creating and Using InnoDB Tables
14.5.7. Adding and Removing InnoDB Data and Log Files
14.5.8. Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database
14.5.9. Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
14.5.10. InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking
14.5.11. InnoDB Performance Tuning Tips
14.5.12. Implementation of Multi-Versioning
14.5.13. InnoDB Table and Index Structures
14.5.14. InnoDB File Space Management and Disk I/O
14.5.15. InnoDB Error Handling
14.5.16. Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
14.5.17. InnoDB Troubleshooting
14.6. The MERGE Storage Engine
14.6.1. MERGE Table Problems
14.7. The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine
14.8. The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
14.9. The FEDERATED Storage Engine
14.9.1. FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
14.9.2. How to create FEDERATED Tables
14.9.3. FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
14.9.4. FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
14.10. The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
14.11. The CSV Storage Engine
14.11.1. Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
14.11.2. CSV Limitations
14.12. The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
15. MySQL Cluster
15.1. MySQL Cluster Overview
15.2. Basic MySQL Cluster Concepts
15.2.1. MySQL Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
15.3. Simple Multi-Computer How-To
15.3.1. Hardware, Software, and Networking
15.3.2. Multi-Computer Installation
15.3.3. Multi-Computer Configuration
15.3.4. Initial Startup
15.3.5. Loading Sample Data and Performing Queries
15.3.6. Safe Shutdown and Restart
15.4. MySQL Cluster Configuration
15.4.1. Building MySQL Cluster from Source Code
15.4.2. Installing the Software
15.4.3. Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster
15.4.4. Configuration File
15.4.5. Overview of Cluster Configuration Parameters
15.4.6. Configuring Parameters for Local Checkpoints
15.5. Upgrading and Downgrading MySQL Cluster
15.5.1. Performing a Rolling Restart of the Cluster
15.5.2. Cluster Upgrade and Downgrade Compatibility
15.6. Process Management in MySQL Cluster
15.6.1. MySQL Server Process Usage for MySQL Cluster
15.6.2. ndbd, the Storage Engine Node Process
15.6.3. ndb_mgmd, the Management Server Process
15.6.4. ndb_mgm, the Management Client Process
15.6.5. Command Options for MySQL Cluster Processes
15.7. Management of MySQL Cluster
15.7.1. MySQL Cluster Startup Phases
15.7.2. Commands in the Management Client
15.7.3. Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster
15.7.4. Single User Mode
15.8. On-line Backup of MySQL Cluster
15.8.1. Cluster Backup Concepts
15.8.2. Using The Management Client to Create a Backup
15.8.3. How to Restore a Cluster Backup
15.8.4. Configuration for Cluster Backup
15.8.5. Backup Troubleshooting
15.9. Cluster Utility Programs
15.9.1. ndb_config
15.9.2. ndb_delete_all
15.9.3. ndb_desc
15.9.4. ndb_drop_index
15.9.5. ndb_drop_table
15.9.6. ndb_error_reporter
15.9.7. ndb_print_backup_file
15.9.8. ndb_print_schema_file
15.9.9. ndb_print_sys_file
15.9.10. ndb_select_all
15.9.11. ndb_select_count
15.9.12. ndb_show_tables
15.9.13. — NDBCluster Size Requirement Estimator
15.9.14. ndb_waiter
15.10. MySQL Cluster Replication
15.10.1. Abbreviations and Symbols
15.10.2. Assumptions and General Requirements
15.10.3. Known Issues
15.10.4. Replication Schema and Tables
15.10.5. Preparing the Cluster for Replication
15.10.6. Starting Replication (Single Replication Channel)
15.10.7. Using Two Replication Channels
15.10.8. Implementing Failover with MySQL Cluster
15.10.9. MySQL Cluster Backups With Replication
15.11. MySQL Cluster Disk Data Storage
15.12. Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster
15.12.1. Configuring MySQL Cluster to use SCI Sockets
15.12.2. Understanding the Impact of Cluster Interconnects
15.13. Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster
15.14. MySQL Cluster Development Roadmap
15.14.1. MySQL Cluster Changes in MySQL 5.1
15.15. MySQL Cluster Glossary
16. Partitioning
16.1. Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
16.2. Partition Types
16.2.1. RANGE Partitioning
16.2.2. LIST Partitioning
16.2.3. HASH Partitioning
16.2.4. KEY Partitioning
16.2.5. Subpartitioning
16.2.6. How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL Values
16.3. Partition Management
16.3.1. Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
16.3.2. Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
16.3.3. Maintenance of Partitions
16.3.4. Obtaining Information About Partitions
16.4. Partition Pruning
16.5. Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
17. Spatial Extensions
17.1. Introduction to MySQL Spatial Support
17.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model
17.2.1. The Geometry Class Hierarchy
17.2.2. Class Geometry
17.2.3. Class Point
17.2.4. Class Curve
17.2.5. Class LineString
17.2.6. Class Surface
17.2.7. Class Polygon
17.2.8. Class GeometryCollection
17.2.9. Class MultiPoint
17.2.10. Class MultiCurve
17.2.11. Class MultiLineString
17.2.12. Class MultiSurface
17.2.13. Class MultiPolygon
17.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats
17.3.1. Well-Known Text (WKT) Format
17.3.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB) Format
17.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database
17.4.1. MySQL Spatial Data Types
17.4.2. Creating Spatial Values
17.4.3. Creating Spatial Columns
17.4.4. Populating Spatial Columns
17.4.5. Fetching Spatial Data
17.5. Analyzing Spatial Information
17.5.1. Geometry Format Conversion Functions
17.5.2. Geometry Functions
17.5.3. Functions That Create New Geometries from Existing Ones
17.5.4. Functions for Testing Spatial Relations Between Geometric Objects
17.5.5. Relations on Geometry Minimal Bounding Rectangles (MBRs)
17.5.6. Functions That Test Spatial Relationships Between Geometries
17.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis
17.6.1. Creating Spatial Indexes
17.6.2. Using a Spatial Index
17.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility
18. Stored Procedures and Functions
18.1. Stored Routines and the Grant Tables
18.2. Stored Routine Syntax
18.2.4. CALL Statement Syntax
18.2.5. BEGIN ... END Compound Statement Syntax
18.2.6. DECLARE Statement Syntax
18.2.7. Variables in Stored Routines
18.2.8. Conditions and Handlers
18.2.9. Cursors
18.2.10. Flow Control Constructs
18.3. Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
18.4. Binary Logging of Stored Routines and Triggers
19. Triggers
19.2. DROP TRIGGER Syntax
19.3. Using Triggers
20. Event Scheduler
20.1. Event Scheduler Overview
20.2. Event Scheduler Syntax
20.2.1. CREATE EVENT Syntax
20.2.2. ALTER EVENT Syntax
20.2.3. DROP EVENT Syntax
20.3. Event Metadata
20.4. Event Scheduler Status
20.5. The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
20.6. Event Scheduler Limitations and Restrictions
21.1. ALTER VIEW Syntax
21.2. CREATE VIEW Syntax
21.3. DROP VIEW Syntax
22.26. Other INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
22.27. Extensions to SHOW Statements
23. Precision Math
23.1. Types of Numeric Values
23.2. DECIMAL Data Type Changes
23.3. Expression Handling
23.4. Rounding Behavior
23.5. Precision Math Examples
24. APIs and Libraries
24.1. libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
24.1.1. Overview of the Embedded MySQL Server Library
24.1.2. Compiling Programs with libmysqld
24.1.3. Restrictions When Using the Embedded MySQL Server
24.1.4. Options with the Embedded Server
24.1.5. Embedded Server Examples
24.1.6. Licensing the Embedded Server
24.2. MySQL C API
24.2.1. C API Data types
24.2.2. C API Function Overview
24.2.3. C API Function Descriptions
24.2.4. C API Prepared Statements
24.2.5. C API Prepared Statement Data types
24.2.6. C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
24.2.7. C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
24.2.8. C API Prepared statement problems
24.2.9. C API Handling of Multiple Statement Execution
24.2.10. C API Handling of Date and Time Values
24.2.11. C API Threaded Function Descriptions
24.2.12. C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
24.2.13. Common Questions and Problems When Using the C API
24.2.14. Building Client Programs
24.2.15. How to Make a Threaded Client
24.3.1. Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
24.3.2. Enabling Both mysql and mysqli in PHP
24.4. MySQL Perl API
24.5. MySQL C++ API
24.6. MySQL Python API
24.7. MySQL Tcl API
24.8. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
24.9. MySQL Program Development Utilities
24.9.1. msql2mysql — Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL
24.9.2. mysql_config — Get Compile Options for Compiling Clients
25. Connectors
25.1. MySQL Connector/ODBC
25.1.1. Introduction to Connector/ODBC
25.1.2. Connector/ODBC Installation
25.1.3. Connector/ODBC Configuration
25.1.4. Connector/ODBC Examples
25.1.5. Connector/ODBC Reference
25.1.6. Connector/ODBC Notes and Tips
25.1.7. Connector/ODBC Support
25.2. MySQL Connector/NET
25.2.1. Connector/NET Versions
25.2.2. Connector/NET Installation
25.2.3. Connector/NET Examples
25.2.4. Connector/NET Reference
25.2.5. Connector/NET Notes and Tips
25.2.6. Connector/NET Support
25.3. MySQL Visual Studio Plugin
25.3.1. Installing the MySQL Visual Studio Plugin
25.3.2. Creating a connection to the MySQL server
25.3.3. Using the MySQL Visual Studio Plugin
25.3.4. Visual Studio Plugin Support
25.4. MySQL Connector/J
25.4.1. Connector/J Versions
25.4.2. Connector/J Installation
25.4.3. Connector/J Examples
25.4.4. Connector/J (JDBC) Reference
25.4.5. Connector/J Notes and Tips
25.4.6. Connector/J Support
25.5. MySQL Connector/MXJ
25.5.1. Introduction to Connector/MXJ
25.5.2. Connector/MXJ Installation
25.5.3. Connector/MXJ Configuration
25.5.4. Connector/MXJ Reference
25.5.5. Connector/MXJ Notes and Tips
25.5.6. Connector/MXJ Support
25.6. Connector/PHP
26. Extending MySQL
26.1. MySQL Internals
26.1.1. MySQL Threads
26.1.2. MySQL Test Suite
26.2. The MySQL Plugin Interface
26.2.1. Characteristics of the Plugin Interface
26.2.2. Full-Text Parser Plugins
26.2.3. INSTALL PLUGIN Syntax
26.2.5. Writing Plugins
26.3. Adding New Functions to MySQL
26.3.1. Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
26.3.2. CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
26.3.3. DROP FUNCTION Syntax
26.3.4. Adding a New User-Defined Function
26.3.5. Adding a New Native Function
26.4. Adding New Procedures to MySQL
26.4.1. Procedure Analyse
26.4.2. Writing a Procedure
A. Frequently Asked Questions About MySQL 5.1
A.1. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — General
A.2. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Storage Engines
A.3. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Server SQL Mode
A.4. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Stored Procedures
A.5. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Triggers
A.6. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Stored Routines, Triggers, and Replication
A.7. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Views
A.9. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Migration
A.10. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Security
A.11. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — MySQL Cluster
A.12. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.13. MySQL 5.1 FAQ — Connectors & APIs
B. Problems and Common Errors
B.1. How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.2. Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.2.1. Access denied
B.2.2. Can't connect to [local] MySQL server
B.2.3. Client does not support authentication protocol
B.2.4. Password Fails When Entered Interactively
B.2.5. Host 'host_name' is blocked
B.2.6. Too many connections
B.2.7. Out of memory
B.2.8. MySQL server has gone away
B.2.9. Packet too large
B.2.10. Communication Errors and Aborted Connections
B.2.11. The table is full
B.2.12. Can't create/write to file
B.2.13. Commands out of sync
B.2.14. Ignoring user
B.2.15. Table 'tbl_name' doesn't exist
B.2.16. Can't initialize character set
B.2.17. 'File' Not Found and Similar Errors
B.3. Installation-Related Issues
B.3.1. Problems Linking to the MySQL Client Library
B.3.2. Problems with File Permissions
B.4. Administration-Related Issues
B.4.1. How to Reset the Root Password
B.4.2. What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing
B.4.3. How MySQL Handles a Full Disk
B.4.4. Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files
B.4.5. How to Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File
B.4.6. Time Zone Problems
B.5. Query-Related Issues
B.5.1. Case Sensitivity in Searches
B.5.2. Problems Using DATE Columns
B.5.3. Problems with NULL Values
B.5.4. Problems with Column Aliases
B.5.5. Rollback Failure for Non-Transactional Tables
B.5.6. Deleting Rows from Related Tables
B.5.7. Solving Problems with No Matching Rows
B.5.8. Problems with Floating-Point Comparisons
B.6. Optimizer-Related Issues
B.7. Table Definition-Related Issues
B.7.1. Problems with ALTER TABLE
B.7.2. How to Change the Order of Columns in a Table
B.8. Known Issues in MySQL
B.8.1. Open Issues in MySQL
C. Error Codes and Messages
C.1. Server Error Codes and Messages
C.2. Client Error Codes and Messages
D. Credits
D.1. Developers at MySQL AB
D.2. Contributors to MySQL
D.3. Documenters and translators
D.4. Libraries used by and included with MySQL
D.5. Packages that support MySQL
D.6. Tools that were used to create MySQL
D.7. Supporters of MySQL
E. MySQL Change History
E.1. Changes in release 5.1.x (Development)
E.1.1. Changes in release 5.1.16 (Not yet released)
E.1.2. Changes in release 5.1.15 (25 January 2007)
E.1.3. Changes in release 5.1.14 (05 December 2006)
E.1.4. Changes in release 5.1.13 (Not released)
E.1.5. Changes in release 5.1.12 (24 October 2006)
E.1.6. Changes in release 5.1.11 (26 May 2006)
E.1.7. Changes in release 5.1.10 (Not released)
E.1.8. Changes in release 5.1.9 (12 April 2006)
E.1.9. Changes in release 5.1.8 (Not released)
E.1.10. Changes in release 5.1.7 (27 February 2006)
E.1.11. Changes in release 5.1.6 (01 February 2006)
E.1.12. Changes in release 5.1.5 (10 January 2006)
E.1.13. Changes in release 5.1.4 (21 December 2005)
E.1.14. Changes in release 5.1.3 (29 November 2005)
E.1.15. Changes in release 5.1.2 (Not released)
E.1.16. Changes in release 5.1.1 (Not released)
E.2. MySQL Connector/ODBC (MyODBC) Change History
E.2.1. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.10 (14 December 2006)
E.2.2. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.9 (22 November 2006)
E.2.3. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.8 (17 November 2006)
E.2.4. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.7 (08 November 2006)
E.2.5. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.6 (03 November 2006)
E.2.6. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.5 (17 October 2006)
E.2.7. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.3 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 3) (20 June 2006)
E.2.8. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.2 (Never released)
E.2.9. Changes in Connector/ODBC 5.0.1 (Connector/ODBC 5.0 Alpha 2) (05 June 2006)
E.2.10. Changes in Connector/ODBC 3.51.13 (Not yet released)
E.2.11. Changes in Connector/ODBC 3.51.12
E.2.12. Changes in Connector/ODBC 3.51.11
E.3. Connector/NET Change History
E.3.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.4 (Not yet released)
E.3.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.3 (05 January 2007)
E.3.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.2 (06 November 2006)
E.3.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.1 (01 October 2006)
E.3.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 5.0.0 (08 August 2006)
E.3.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.9 (Not yet released)
E.3.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.8 (20 October 2006)
E.3.8. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.7 (21 November 2005)
E.3.9. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.6 (03 October 2005)
E.3.10. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.5 (29 August 2005)
E.3.11. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.4 (20 January 2005)
E.3.12. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.3-gamma (12 October 2004)
E.3.13. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.2-gamma (15 November 2004)
E.3.14. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.1-beta2 (27 October 2004)
E.3.15. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 1.0.0 (01 September 2004)
E.3.16. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.9.0 (30 August 2004)
E.3.17. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.76
E.3.18. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.75
E.3.19. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.74
E.3.20. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.71
E.3.21. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.70
E.3.22. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.68
E.3.23. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.65
E.3.24. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.60
E.3.25. Changes in MySQL Connector/NET Version 0.50
E.4. MySQL Visual Studio Plugin Change History
E.4.1. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.2 (Not yet released)
E.4.2. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.1 (4 October 2006)
E.4.3. Changes in MySQL Visual Studio Plugin 1.0.0 (4 October 2006)
E.5. MySQL Connector/J Change History
E.5.1. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.1.x
E.5.2. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 5.0.x
E.5.3. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.1.x
E.5.4. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 3.0.x
E.5.5. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 2.0.x
E.5.6. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2b (04 July 1999)
E.5.7. Changes in MySQL Connector/J 1.2.x and lower
F. Porting to Other Systems
F.1. Debugging a MySQL Server
F.1.1. Compiling MySQL for Debugging
F.1.2. Creating Trace Files
F.1.3. Debugging mysqld under gdb
F.1.4. Using a Stack Trace
F.1.5. Using Server Logs to Find Causes of Errors in mysqld
F.1.6. Making a Test Case If You Experience Table Corruption
F.2. Debugging a MySQL Client
F.3. The DBUG Package
F.4. Comments about RTS Threads
F.5. Differences Between Thread Packages
G. Environment Variables
H. Regular Expressions
I. Limits in MySQL
I.1. Limits of Joins
J. Feature Restrictions
J.1. Restrictions on Stored Routines and Triggers
J.2. Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
J.3. Restrictions on Subqueries
J.4. Restrictions on Views
J.5. Restrictions on XA Transactions
K. GNU General Public License
L. MySQL FLOSS License Exception

List of Figures

6.1. Using replication to improve the performance during scaleout
6.2. Using replication to replicate separate DBs to multiple hosts
6.3. Using an additional replication host to improve performance
6.4. Redundancy using replication, initial structure
6.5. Redundancy using replication, after master failure
14.1. The MySQL architecture using pluggable storage engines
14.2. FEDERATED table structure

List of Examples

25.1. Obtaining a connection from the DriverManager
25.2. Using java.sql.Statement to execute a SELECT query
25.3. Stored Procedures
25.4. Using Connection.prepareCall()
25.5. Registering output parameters
25.6. Setting CallableStatement input parameters
25.7. Retrieving results and output parameter values
25.8. Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using Statement.getGeneratedKeys()
25.9. Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values using SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID()
25.10. Retrieving AUTO_INCREMENT column values in Updatable ResultSets
25.11. Using a connection pool with a J2EE application server
25.12. Example of transaction with retry logic