Table of Contents
label_encodings file contains a
and seven mandatory sections:
PRINTER BANNERS, and
RANGE. The sections must appear in the order given. An optional
LOCAL DEFINITIONS section can follow.
In the following table, Mandatory keyword means only that the keyword must be present. Not all keywords must have definitions. The notes for each section indicate what must be defined and what is optional.
Table 3.1. Label Encodings Keywords
Mandatory keyword. The version specification is the single keyword
Mandatory keyword. At least one classification must be defined
Mandatory keywords. Even though information labels are not used in Trusted Extensions software, you must assign one bit to an information label word for each bit that you assign to a sensitivity label word. The sensitivity label words are defined in the following section.
Mandatory keywords. One bit must be assigned to a clearance word for any sensitivity label word that you have defined. Clearance labels can allow combinations of words that have been disallowed in the definitions for sensitivity label words.
Mandatory keyword. A rule must be defined for each classification name. The minimum clearance, minimum sensitivity label, and minimum protect as classification must be defined.
For all the required sections, the keywords in the preceding table must
be present, but not all of the sections must have definitions. For example,
label_encodings file with only
ACCREDITATION RANGE definitions is valid.
The order in which words are configured for sensitivity labels and clearances
is not enforced. However, the order is important when setting up relationships
between words. By convention, the
WORDS in the
LABELS section are arranged in increasing order of importance.
For the effect of word order, seeof . Detailed information is provided in .
If a compartment word is defined for one type of label (by assigning
the compartment word to one or more bits) in the
then the same bits must be assigned to a word in the definition of the other
types of labels. While all types of labels use the same classification names,
the words that are used for each type of label can be different. The words
can be different even when they are encoded with the same bits and literally
refer to the same thing. Clearance labels can allow combinations of words
that have been disallowed in the definitions for sensitivity labels words.
The classification is the hierarchical portion of a label. Each
label has one and only one classification. A site can define up to 255 classifications.
An integer value from 1 to 255 can be assigned to a classification in the
label_encodings file. The value 0 is reserved for the
ADMIN_LOW administrative label. The value 32,767 is reserved for the
ADMIN_HIGH administrative label. For an illustration, see .
Classifications are defined once for clearances and for sensitivity
labels in the
CLASSIFICATIONS section of the
A classification with a higher value dominates a classification
with a lower value. The following table shows two sets of label names that
are assigned the same values in different encodings files. The left column
shows sample sensitivity labels from the
The middle column shows labels from the
A label with the
Top Secret classification,
with a value of 6, dominates the labels that are listed in its column.
U.S. Government Example
The following list describes the keywords that can be defined for classifications. For examples of initial compartment definitions, see.
The values that you assign should represent the actual hierarchy
among the classifications. The values should leave room for later expansion.
0 is reserved for
ADMIN_LOW. Values can start
1 and go to
Advanced: Specify bit numbers for any inverse words. The minimum classification should not have initial compartments.
Obsolete. Do not define.
Example 3.1. Classifications With Initial Compartments
VERSION= Trusted Solaris Multi-Label Sample Version - 5.6 05/07/27 * * WARNING: If CIPSO Tag Type 1 network labels are to be used: * * a) All CLASSIFICATIONS values must be less than or equal to 255. * b) All COMPARTMENTS bits must be less than or equal to 239. * CLASSIFICATIONS: * name= UNCLASSIFIED; sname= U; value= 1; name= CONFIDENTIAL; sname= C; value= 4; initial compartments= 4-5 190-239; name= SECRET; sname= S; value= 5; initial compartments= 4-5 190-239; name= TOP SECRET; sname= TS; value= 6; initial compartments= 4-5 190-239;
Each classification has the mandatory
value fields. The
TOP SECRET classifications have
initial compartments. The lowest classification,
has no initial compartments.
The initial compartment bit assignments of
190-239 signify that bits 4, 5, and 190 through 239 are turned on.
These bits are set to
1 in a label with this classification.
Some of the initial compartments are later used to define default and inverse words. Some initial compartments are reserved for possible later definitions of inverse words.
Example 3.2. Classifications With No Initial Compartments
CLASSIFICATIONS: name= PUBLIC; sname= PUBLIC; value= 1; name= INTERNAL_USE_ONLY; sname= INTERNAL; aname= INTERNAL; value= 4; name= NEED_TO_KNOW; sname= NEED_TO_KNOW; aname= NEED_TO_KNOW; value= 5; name= REGISTERED; sname= REGISTERED; aname= REGISTERED; value= 6;
When a bit is defined as an initial compartment, the bit is set to
1 in every label that contains the classification. Any bit that
is specified for an initial compartment can be defined later in the
label_encodings file as a default word or an inverse
A default compartment word is a word that appears in any label that contains the classification.
An inverse compartment word is a word that appears in a label that has the associated classification when another word that you define with the inverse compartment's bit is not present.
Example 3.3. Assigning Initial Compartments
In this example, the
PUBLIC classification is assigned
no initial compartments, while the
WEB COMPANY classification
is assigned initial compartments 4 and 5. A label that includes the
PUBLIC classification has no default compartments. A label that includes
WEB COMPANY classification always has compartment bits
4 and 5 turned on.
name= PUBLIC; sname= P; value= 1; name= WEB COMPANY; sname= WEBCO; value= 4; initial compartments= 4-5
Example 3.4. Defining Default and Inverse
In this example, compartment bits 4 and 5 are assigned to the word
DIVISION ONLY. Each compartment bit is also associated with an inverse
WEBC AMERICA is assigned to the inverse compartment
WEBC WORLD is assigned to the inverse compartment
bit ~5. These assignments have the following results:
A sensitivity label with the
WEB COMPANY classification
initially includes the word
DIVISION ONLY. The label's
binary representation has the compartment bits 4 and 5 turned on.
A sensitivity label with the
always has compartment bits 4 and 5 turned off. The words
WEBC AMERICA and
WEBC WORLD are included in the label.
IUO is specified for the inverse words,
WEBC AMERICA and
WEBC WORLD are not displayed
PUBLIC sensitivity label. The presence of these
two inverse words is understood.
SENSITIVITY LABELS: WORDS: name= DIVISION ONLY; sname= DO; minclass= WEB COMPANY; compartments= 4-5; name= WEBC AMERICA; sname= WEBCA; minclass= WEB COMPANY; compartments= ~4; name= WEBC WORLD; sname= WEBCW; minclass= WEB COMPANY; compartments= ~5;
Compartments are optional words that can be defined to appear in labels. Compartments are called categories in some other trusted systems. Compartments are used to indicate the special handling procedures to be used for the information whose label contains the compartment and the general class of people who might have access to the information.
Compartment words are assigned to non-hierarchical bits. However, hierarchies can be established between compartment words. These hierarchies are based on rules for including bits from one compartment word in the bits that are defined for another compartment word.
Compartment words are optionally defined in the
for each label type. Each compartment word is assigned to one or more bits.
While all types of labels use the same classifications, the words that are used for each type of label can be different. The words can be different even when they are encoded with the same bits and literally refer to the same thing.
Example 3.5. Sample Compartment Definition for a Sensitivity Label
WORDS: name= WEB COMPANY; sname= WEBCO; compartments= 40-50;
Along with its classification field, each label has a 256-bit compartment field, of which 239 are available for CIPSO labels. Each bit is assignable in zero or more compartment words. Each word can have one or more compartment bits assigned. Out of the 239 available bits, many compartment words can be created. For an example, see the compartments planner in .
The classification, compartments, and combination requirements affect
the accreditation range. The
ACCREDITATION RANGE for each
classification setting should be one of the following strings:
only valid compartment combinations;
all compartment combinations valid;
all compartment combinations valid except;
Hierarchical compartments can be used to differentiate between documents that are available to everyone in a larger group, and documents that are available to subgroups only.
Example 3.6. Using Bit Combinations to Establish Hierarchies
By defining a word that uses one bit and a second word that uses that same bit along with a second bit, you define a hierarchical relationship between the two words. The compartment word that is more general must be defined below the word that is more specific. For example, by defining a word that uses bit number 1 and another word that uses bits number 1 and 2, you give the two words a hierarchical relationship.
In this example, a Sales compartment is defined with two subcompartments, Direct Sales, and Indirect Sales. A single classification that is named WebCo is previously defined.
name= Direct_Sales; compartments= 1, 2 name= Indirect_Sales; compartments= 1, 3 name= Sales; compartments= 1
This definition allows the WebCo company to differentiate between documents that can be accessed by anyone in the entire sales force, documents that can be accessed only by members of the indirect sales force, and documents that can be accessed only by members of the direct sales force.
The security administrator gives the WebCo Direct_Sales clearance to employees in the direct sales organization. The WebCo Indirect_Sales clearance is given to employees in the indirect sales organization.
Documents created by anyone working at the WebCo Direct_Sales label get the same label, so the documents are only accessible to employees in the direct sales department.
Anyone in the indirect or direct sales forces can work at the WebCo Sales label because the compartment word Sales is below both the Direct_Sales and Indirect_Sales words. Creating documents at the WebCo Sales label makes the documents available to everyone in the Sales department.
Example 3.7. Using
REQUIRED COMBINATIONS to
If two words are specified together in the
REQUIRED COMBINATIONS section,
the second label is added to the label whenever the first word is used.
In this example, the definition of the Direct Sales, Indirect_Sales, and Sales serves essentially the same effect as the example in. The difference is that the Direct_Sales word will always have the Sales word with it
name= Direct_Sales; compartments= 2 name= Indirect_Sales; compartments= 3 name= Sales; compartments= 1 REQUIRED COMBINATIONS: Direct_Sales Sales Indirect_Sales Sales