The target audience for this guide is the application component provider, i.e., the person in charge of developing the software components on the server side (the business tier).
The content of this guide is the following:
JOnAS supports two types of J2EE application components: Enterprise Beans and Web components. In addition to providing guides for construction of application components, guides are supplied for application assembly, deployment, and administration.
The individual in charge of developing Enterprise Beans should consult the Enterprise Beans Programmer's Guide for instructions on how to perform the following tasks:
This JOnAS documentation provides guides for developing the three types of enterprise bean:
Deployment descriptor specification is presented in the Defining the Deployment Descriptor chapter.
More specific issues related to transaction behaviour, the Enterprise Bean environment, or security service, are presented in the corresponding chapters: Transactional behaviour, Enterprise Bean Environment, Security Management.
Principles and tools for providing EJB JAR files are presented in the chapters EJB Packaging and Deployment and Installation Guide.
Web designers in charge of JSP pages and software developers providing servlets can consult the Web Application Programmer's Guide.
The Developing Web Components guide explains how to construct Web components, as well as how to access Enterprise Beans from within the Web Components.Deployment descriptor specification is presented in the Defining the Web Deployment Descriptor chapter.
Web components can be used as Web application components or as
J2EE application components. In both cases, a WAR file will be
created, but the content of this file is different in the two situations. In
the first case, the WAR contains the Web components and the Enterprise Beans.
In the second case, the WAR does not contain the Enterprise Beans. The EJB
JAR file containing the Enterprise Beans is packed together with the WAR file
containing the Web components, into an EAR file.
Principles and tools for providing WAR files are presented in WAR Packaging and the Deployment and Installation Guide.
The application assembler in charge of assembling the application components already bundled in EJB JAR files and WAR files into a J2EE EAR file, can obtain useful information from the J2EE Application Assembler's Guide chapter.
JOnAS provides tools for the deployment and administration of Enterprise Beans (EJB JARs), Web applications (WARs), and J2EE applications (EARs).
The Deployment and Installation Guide covers issues related to the deployment of application components.
The Administration Guide presents information about how to manage the JOnAS server and the JOnAS services that allow deployment of the different types of application components: EJB Container service, Web Container service, and EAR service.
This section describes a new and important key feature of the J2EE integration: the class loader hierarchy in JOnAS.
An application is deployed by its own class loader. This means, for
example, that if a WAR and an EJB JAR are deployed separately, the classes
contained in the two archives are loaded with two separate classloaders with
no hierarchy between them. Thus, the EJBs from within the JAR will not be
visible to the Web components in the WAR.
This is not acceptable in cases where the Web components of an application need to reference and use some of the EJBs (this concerns local references in the same JVM).
For this reason, prior to EAR files, when a Web application had to be deployed using EJBs, the EJB JAR had to be located in the WEB-INF/lib directory of the Web application.
Currently, with the J2EE integration and the use of the EAR packaging, class visibility problems no longer exist and the EJB JAR is no longer required in the WEB-INF/lib directory.
The following sections describe the JOnAS class loader hierarchy and explain the mechanism used to locate the referenced classes.
commons class loader is a JOnAS-specific class loader that will load
all classes required to start the JOnAS server. This class loader has the
system class loader as parent class loader. The commons class loader adds all
the common libraries required to start the JOnAS server (J2EE apps, commons
logging, objectweb components, etc.); it also loads the classes located in
The JARs loaded by the
commons class loader are located
JONAS_BASE/lib/commons directories. You can
extend this class loader by adding your own JARs inside these
directories. If you are using a Jetty packaging,
JONAS_ROOT/lib/jetty will be loaded too.
Note that the lib/ext extension mechanism is now
deprecated. You should place additional JARs directly in the
classloader directory (
You should now use the
JONAS_BASE/lib/commons if you want to
apps ClassLoader and
Notice that the
JONAS_BASE extension directories are always
JONAS_ROOT directories, so if the same class is in
JONAS_BASE/lib/commons, the one located in
JONAS_ROOT/lib/commons will be used.
To have a library available for each component running inside JOnAS, add
the required JAR files in the
JONAS_ROOT/lib/commons directory or in
JONAS_BASE/lib/commons. All jars in subordinate directories will
also be loaded.
If a specific jar is needed only for a web application (i.e., need to use a version of a jar file which is different than a version loaded by JOnAS), change the compliance of the web application classloader to the java 2 delegation model. Refer to the following: WEB class loader.
It is also possible to use the extension mechanism, which is described in the section dependencies of the J2EE specification (section 220.127.116.11).
application class loader is a JOnAS-specific class loader that will
load all application classes required by the user applications. This implies
that this loader will load all single RAR files. Thus, all applications
have the visibility of the resource adapters classes. This class loader has the
commons class loader as parent class loader.
The JARs loaded by the
application class loader are
located under the
CATALINA_HOME/common/lib if you are not using the
Tomcat package) and under
You can extend this class loader by adding your own
JARs inside these directories.
tools class loader is a JOnAS-specific class loader that will load all
classes for which applications do not require visibility. (User applications
will not have the ability to load the classes packaged in the
loader). For example, it includes the jakarta velocity and digester
components. This class loader has the
commons class loader as parent class
The JARs loaded by the
tools class loader are located under the
JONAS_ROOT/lib/tools directory and under the
JONAS_BASE/lib/tools directory. You can extend this class loader
by adding your own JARs inside these directories.
tomcat class loader is a class loader that will load all classes of
the tomcat server (
CATALINA_HOME/server/lib directory). The
classes of the common directory of tomcat
CATALINA_HOME/common/lib directory) are loaded by the
application classloader and not by this
tomcat classloader. Applications have
the visibility of the classes and not the
server classes. To have
the visibility of the
server classes, the context must have
the privileged attribute set to
true. This class loader
application class loader as parent class loader.
The JARs loaded by the
tomcat class loader are located
JONAS_ROOT/lib/catalina/server/lib directory (if
using Tomcat packaging, unless these libs are located under
CATALINA_HOME/server/lib). You can extend this class
loader by adding your own JARs inside this directory.
The JOnAS class loader hierarchy that allows the deployment of EAR applications without placing the EJB JAR in the WEB-INF/lib directory consists of the following:
The EAR class loader is responsible for loading the EAR application. There is only one EAR class loader per EAR application. This class loader is the child of the application class loader, thus making JOnAS classes visible to it.
The EJB class loader is responsible for loading all the EJB JARs of the EAR application, thus all the EJBs of the same EAR application are loaded with the same EJB classloader. This class loader is the child of the EAR class loader.
The WEB class loader is responsible for loading the Web components. There is one WEB class loader per WAR file, and this class loader is the child of the EJB class loader. Using this class loader hierarchy (the EJB class loader is the parent of the WEB class loader) eliminates the problem of visibility between classes when a WEB component tries to reference EJBs; the classes loaded with the EJB class loader are definitely visible to the classes loaded by its child class loader (WEB class loader).
The compliance of the class loader of the web application to the java 2 delegation model can be changed by using the jonas-web.xml file. This is described in the section "Defining the Web Deployment Descriptor."
If the java2-delegation-model element is set to false, the class loader of the web application looks for the class in its own repository before asking its parent class loader.
The resulting JOnAS class loader hierarchy is as follows: